Embedding

Kopf is designed to be embeddable into other applications, which require watching over the Kubernetes resources (custom or built-in), and handling the changes. This can be used, for example, in desktop applications or web APIs/UIs to keep the state of the cluster and its resources in memory.

Manual execution

Since Kopf is fully asynchronous, the best way to run Kopf is to provide an event-loop in a separate thread, which is dedicated to Kopf, while running the main application in the main thread:

import asyncio
import threading

import kopf

@kopf.on.create('kopfexamples')
def create_fn(**_):
    pass

def kopf_thread():
    asyncio.run(kopf.operator())

def main():
    thread = threading.Thread(target=kopf_thread)
    thread.start()
    # ...
    thread.join()

In the case of kopf run, the main application is Kopf itself, so its event-loop runs in the main thread.

Note

When an asyncio task runs not in the main thread, it cannot set the OS signal handlers, so a developer should implement the termination themselves (cancellation of an operator task is enough).

Manual orchestration

Alternatively, a developer can orchestrate the operator’s tasks and sub-tasks themselves. The example above is an equivalent of the following:

def kopf_thread():
    loop = asyncio.get_event_loop_policy().get_event_loop()
    tasks = loop.run_until_complete(kopf.spawn_tasks())
    loop.run_until_complete(kopf.run_tasks(tasks, return_when=asyncio.FIRST_COMPLETED))

Or, if proper cancellation and termination are not expected, of the following:

def kopf_thread():
    loop = asyncio.get_event_loop_policy().get_event_loop()
    tasks = loop.run_until_complete(kopf.spawn_tasks())
    loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.wait(tasks))

In all cases, make sure that asyncio event loops are properly used. Specifically, asyncio.run() creates and finalises a new event loop for a single call. Several calls cannot share the coroutines and tasks. To make several calls, either create a new event loop, or get the event loop of the current asyncio _context_ (by default, of the current thread). See more on the asyncio event loops and _contexts_ in Asyncio Policies.

Multiple operators

Kopf can handle multiple resources at a time, so only one instance should be sufficient for most cases. However, it can be needed to run multiple isolated operators in the same process.

It should be safe to run multiple operators in multiple isolated event-loops. Despite Kopf’s routines use the global state, all such a global state is stored in contextvars containers with values isolated per-loop and per-task.

import asyncio
import threading

import kopf

registry = kopf.OperatorRegistry()

@kopf.on.create('kopfexamples', registry=registry)
def create_fn(**_):
    pass

def kopf_thread():
    asyncio.run(kopf.operator(
        registry=registry,
    ))

def main():
    thread = threading.Thread(target=kopf_thread)
    thread.start()
    # ...
    thread.join()

Warning

It is not recommended to run Kopf in the same event-loop as other routines or applications: it considers all tasks in the event-loop as spawned by its workers and handlers, and cancels them when it exits.

There are some basic safety measures to not cancel tasks existing prior to the operator’s startup, but that cannot be applied to the tasks spawned later due to asyncio implementation details.